Australia and New Zealand Mini Series Part 22: North Island, New Zealand: An Artistic Vision Arising from New Zealand's Worst Earthquake in 1931: Napier, and Hawke's Bay

This is the twenty-second in my series of short reflections on different places in Australia and New Zealand, as experienced during my November 2019 visit. Today is the sixth of my posts on New Zealand’s North Island.

map of New Zealand
map of New Zealand
Map of Australia and New Zealand

In my last post I wrote about our visit to the enchanting Lake Taupo.

Lake Taupo

From Lake Taupo, we headed south east to Napier, through a landscape of golden broom and vast pine plantations, which gave way to grand mountain scenery, as the road crossed a precipitous chasm. Our first view of Napier was from a great height and we saw areas of dry bleached grass for the first time since our arrival in New Zealand, with evidence of the logging industry everywhere.

The town of Napier was destroyed by an earthquake in 1931 which killed 256, injured thousands and devastated the Hawke’s Bay region. It remains New Zealand’s deadliest natural disaster. Out of this tragedy, though, a new and beautiful town was reborn; subsequently rebuilt in the Art Deco style of the period, Napier today is an artistic vision with evidence in its architecture of the most minute attention to the highest standards of design. Every years the locals hold an Art Deco Festival with a Great Gatsby picnic on the sea front which I would love!

The region is also noted for its wineries and first of all we visited The Mission winery outside the town. I was intrigued to learn that it is New Zealand’s oldest winery and ‘the birthplace of New Zealand wine‘; and started life specialising in communion wines; hence the name. We certainly enjoyed our wine tasting there.

We then went down into Napier, where we became absorbed in gazing at and photographing many elegant buildings as we strolled around the town.

After that we drove to Bluff Hill Lookout overlooking Hawke’s Bay where vast numbers of stacked pine logs awaited transportation by ship to other countries.

Bluff Hill Lookout was developed by Napier City Council on the remnants of two 2nd World War gun emplacements, so that visitors today may admire the panorama of Hawke’s Bay. We enjoyed the beauty of the gardens surrounding the lookout, full of colourful flowers, and the fascinating view of the bay.

SC Skillman, psychological, suspense, paranormal fiction & non-fiction. My next book, Paranormal Warwickshire, will be published by Amberley Publishing on 15th June 2020 and is available to pre-order now either online, or from the publisher’s website, or from your local bookshop.

Australia and New Zealand Mini Series Part 18: North Island, New Zealand: Paihia and the Bay of Islands; and Kawakawa and its Famous Hundertwasser Landmark

This is the eighteenth in my series of short reflections on different places in Australia and New Zealand, as experienced during my November 2019 visit. Today is the second of my posts on New Zealand’s North Island.

map of New Zealand
map of New Zealand
Map of Australia and New Zealand

In my last post I wrote about West Auckland and the spectacular beaches of Karekare and Piha . Today we head north from Auckland and our destination is Paihia and the Bay of Islands.

We drove north through a landscape of green hills and trees and bright flowers; the North Island of New Zealand in November reminded me of rural England at its best in spring and summer. No wonder the makers of The Lord of the Rings films settled upon this landscape as the ideal location for its idyllic, bucolic Hobbiton.

Stopping on the way at a delightful Honey Centre (New Zealand is famed for its Manuka honey), we arrived at the Top 10 Holiday Park in Paihia.

The holiday park was situated on the bay with tranquil views.

view of the bay from the Top 10 Holiday Park, Paihia
bayside view, Top 10 Holiday Park, Paihia

The following day we planned to cruise around the Bay of Islands. But before that we followed the Waitangi Loop with magnificent views of the Bay. This area is famed for the Waitangi Treaty Grounds, where the Treaty of Waitangi was signed in 1840. The two parties to the treaty were the Maori Chiefs and representatives of the British Crown.

We then visited the small town of Kawakawa, a town which celebrates its significance as the “Cultural Junction of the North“. It demonstrates this by ensuring that evidence of artistic inspiration is seen everywhere.

The town is famed for its unusual choice of venue to celebrate artistic genius: the public toilets designed by the Austrian designer, Friedensreich Hundertwasser. These toilets are on the tourist route and a visit there is mandatory!

After our visit to Kawakawa, we returned to Paihia, to stroll around the town. This very tourist-conscious community and its architecture reminded me of a film-set: hotels, motels and architect-designed houses nestled among restaurants, bistros and boutiques. We were struck by the church which is to be found here, looking incongruous amongst all the contemporary residences: St Paul’s Anglican Church, which was constructed of Kawakawa stone in 1925, on the site of the original mission church.

Properties in Paihia
view of Paihia village

I was interested to find a gravestone in the graveyard behind the church, inscribed to Ngaurupa Te Ngawa Korokoro with an epitaph in the Maori language. As we left the graveyard, we found that a large bottle of water was provided with a request for visitors to wash their hands on leaving the Rupa (graveyard) as a mark of respect to a sacred place.

Maori gravestone in graveyard of St Paul’s Anglican Church, built in 1925 on the site of the original mission church in Paihia

Inside the church I found a prayer-poem for those afflicted by earthquakes. I hope you can read it here.

Later we set off to board a cruise launch for a cruise around the Bay of Islands. But before we embarked, we looked around a fascinating exhibition in the visitor centre which told us that Russell, the small town across the bay from Paihia on Tapeka Point, was once known as ‘the Hell Hole of the Pacific’ because the sailors who docked there rampaged in it, until the missionaries came to sort them out!

Distant view of the Bay of Islands.

As we cruised round the Bay of Islands the weather was breezy and cool, and the captain told us he would only go out to the Hole in the Rock (Motukokako) if the weather conditions made it safe.

In fact we did go there, but were unable to sail right through the hole in the rock out to the waters of the South Pacific beyond as they were too turbulent.

The boat stopped as those on board took the oportunity to photograph this natural wonder, with the waves of the South Pacific crashing against it.

During the cruise we saw dolphins playing in the water around us. Truly a enchanting way to experience the Bay of Islands in this understandably very popular tourist destination.

SC Skillman, psychological, suspense, paranormal fiction & non-fiction. My next book, Paranormal Warwickshire, will be published by Amberley Publishing on 15th June 2020 and is available to pre-order now either online, or from the publisher’s website, or from your local bookshop.

Australia and New Zealand Mini Series Part 13: Bellingen, Charming Small Town in New South Wales

This is the thirteenth in my series of short reflections on different places in Australia and New Zealand, which I visited in November 2019.

Map of Australia and New Zealand

In my last post I shared some stories about the history of Hat Head National Park and Smoky Cape Lighthouse on the New South Wales coast.

Making our way north from Smoky Cape back to Urunga, and moving inland we find the charming small town of Bellingen.

view from Bellingen main street towards the Bellinger river

Beloved of ‘alternative lifestylers’ as are several towns in New South Wales, this little settlement is full of character and colonial-style buildings.

Sited on the River Bellinger, Bellingen Island is home to a colony of grey-headed flying foxes, and it is a critical habitat for this vulnerable species, as you will see from this picture:

Interpretative sign about Flying Foxes at Bellingen in New South Wales

We strolled up the main street of the town:

Main street, Bellingen, New South Wales

Then we arrived at the local Anglican Church, of St Margaret’s, built in the 1930s.

Inside the church, we met a warm and friendly priest who had originally come from Malta, and enjoyed our chat with him. Whilst in the church we admired some of the striking stained glass windows. My favourites were of St Mary, Mother of the Lord; St Elizabeth, Princess of Hungary; St Cecilia, Patron Saint of Music; and St Margaret of Scotland.

St Margaret’s Anglican Church, Bellingen, New South Wales
Interior, St Margaret’s Church, Bellingen, New South Wales

With thanks to the Bellingen Shire Council for their information about the colony of flying foxes on Bellingen Island.

SC Skillman

psychological, suspense, paranormal fiction & non-fiction

My next book, Paranormal Warwickshire

will be published by Amberley Publishing on 15th June 2020

and is available to pre-order now from Amazon.

Australia and New Zealand Mini Series Part 12: South West Rocks, New South Wales – Hat Head National Park and Smoky Cape

This is the twelfth in my series of short reflections on different places in Australia and New Zealand, which I visited in November 2019.

Map of Australia and New Zealand

In my last post I shared some stories about the history of Trial Bay Gaol at South West Rocks, and today I write about Hat Head National Park and Smoky Cape Lighthouse.

visiting Smoky Cape Lighthouse

Captain Cook first sighted and named Smoky Cape on Sunday 13 May 1770 as he sailed past in his ship, the Endeavour.

Rising above the headland was smoke from the fires of the Dunghatti Aboriginal people, who had been living in the coastal environment now known as Hat Head National Park, and walking these beaches and headlands, for thousands of years.

Smoky Cape, New South Wales

Built in 1891, the lighthouse is the most elevated lighthouse in New South Wales. The need for a light at this cape had first been proposed in 1886 by Alexander Kethel, a Scottish-born Australian politician in West Sydney. Australia’s first manned light had been built by convicts in 1791: a wood fired beacon on the south head of Sydney Harbour. That eventually became the site for Australia’s first light tower: Macquarie Lighthouse, built in 1818.

Here at Smoky Cape, you may find glorious coastal views and a magnificent landscape with walking tracks, which is the traditional land of the Dunghatti Aboriginal people, and which continues to have strong cultural significance to them.

a view of Smoky Cape Lighthouse, New South Wales
the path up to Smoky Cape Lighthouse, New South Wales
Kangaroo in Hat Head National Park, New South Wales
Walking track at Smoky Cape, Hat Head National Park, New South Wales
Jamie and Abigail at Smoky Cape Lighthouse

With thanks to the Australian government Maritime Safety Authority for information about this spectacular area and its history.

SC Skillman

psychological, suspense, paranormal fiction & non-fiction

My next book, Paranormal Warwickshire

will be published by Amberley Publishing on 15th June 2020

and is available to pre-order now from Amazon.

Australia and New Zealand Mini Series Part 11: South West Rocks, New South Wales – Trial Bay Gaol and Charlie’s Ghost

This is the eleventh in my series of short reflections on different places in Australia and New Zealand, which I visited in November 2019.

Map of Australia and New Zealand

In my last post I shared my thoughts about the beautiful, dreamlike seascape and wetlands surrounding the Urunga Heads Boardwalk on the Coffs Coast region of the New South Wales north coast. A short distance down the coast from Urunga, past Nambucca Heads, you may find South West Rocks, and the Hat Head National Park. Whilst there, we visited Trial Bay Gaol and Smoky Cape Lighthouse. Today’s post is about Trial Bay Gaol.

Trial Bay Gaol , South West Rocks, New South Wales

Trial Bay Gaol has a fascinating history which encompasses three distinct stages. Built between the years 1886 and 1889, and now in ruins, it houses a museum which is a popular tourist destination.

Trial Bay offered ships refuge, whilst on their voyage from Brisbane to Sydney. The bay was named after the shipwreck of ‘Trial’. The Gaol was built to house prisoners brought there specifically to build a breakwater, to protect ships during storms. So this was the first stage of the Gaol’s story.

By 1903 the advent of sturdier ships meant that a refuge was no longer needed. The breakwater was abandoned and the Gaol closed.

The view from Trial Bay Gaol, South West Rocks, New South Wales

1914 marked the second stage of the Gaol’s history. It was now used to house 500 men of German descent, classified as ‘enemy aliens’. Today, a German monument and a Powder Magazine may be found a short distance from the Gaol ruins. The German prisoners were relocated in 1918

In the 1930s the third stage of the Gaol’s history began, and continued up until the 1960s. Aboriginal people, for whom the area has long been of cultural significance, camped within the Gaol walls. They roamed around the Gaol ruins, and put their initials on the walls. The legend of ‘Charlie’s Ghost’ is very strong among the local aboriginal people. Widely believed to be a previous inmate, Charlie is a reality to them. They have a strong spiritual tradition and believe the spirit of a German prisoner is still there.

Close up view of Trial Bay Gaol, South West Rocks, New South Wales

‘There’s a tree down there and if you climb it you’ll get chucked out of it,’ said Gadan Grahame Quinlan. ‘It’s got to do with Charlie the ghost…. he might have been a “fella” there, an inmate of the Gaol… He’s roaming around there, he’s still there, people feel his presence.’

Aunty Shirley Kelly contributed this story:

‘Gloria, my cousin, she was about eighteen months old and they had a tent there. In the night they could hear her crying like something dragged her out, and then she was outside when they found her. You ask Fred, because Charlie grabbed hold of Fred up here.’

Eddie Moran added his own story:

‘So we walked back from the end of the beach where the lighthouse is…. and Charlie the ghost, he used to come out here. The uncles told me that my grandmother used to pin their pyjamas to her night-dress, so she could feel if they were being pulled out of the tent because Charlie used to come out to camp and poke at them…. she’d feel them tugging and think “what’s going on here?”‘

At the end of the 1960s the aboriginal people moved their camp out of the Gaol ruins and into a camping ground some distance away.

Today, the National Parks and Wildlife Service offers guided tours around the Gaol. The area continues to be of cultural significance to the Dunghutti people.

Many thanks to the National Parks and Wildlife Service for their stories of the gaol and of the aboriginal people who camped within the gaol walls.

SC Skillman

psychological, suspense, paranormal fiction & non-fiction

My next book, Paranormal Warwickshire

will be published by Amberley Publishing on 15th June 2020

and is available to pre-order now from Amazon.

London Scenes Through Different Eyes

I visited London one day recently and whilst there took the opportunity to do a bus tour of the city.

View of the Tower of London from Tower Bridge
View of the Tower of London from Tower Bridge

London was my home in the past (in the Bayswater area) for eight years. Also I was a regular visitor from Orpington during my childhood and teens, since I lived twenty five minutes train ride away. But on this occasion I thought it would be fun to view the capital through different eyes – those of a tourist – and to see if I learned anything new.

View from Westminster Bridge towards London Eye and former County Hall
View from Westminster Bridge towards London Eye and former County Hall

And I must admit the only new thing I recall learning was the location of the residence of Elton John. And the interesting information the tour guide revealed, that this was a nice little earner from him in between whiles, as he, a struggling musician, strove to get paid gigs for himself and his band.

view taken on Fleet Street near Royal Courts of Justice
photo taken on Fleet Street near Royal Courts of Justice

 

But it was also a wonderful opportunity to take a variety of photos upstairs on the open top bus.

Victoria Embankment Gardens
Victoria Embankment Gardens

So here are some of the images I collected on that day, some taken on foot, and others from the top deck of the tour bus.

Window boxes on railings outside London residence
Window boxes on railings outside London residence

Perhaps it’s because I no longer live there, but instead am a frequent visitor, that I see London at its very best.  I don’t think regular commuters, or those who live there, would necessarily see only the most delightful, intriguing and colourful aspects of the city!

South side of tower of London seen from Tower Bridge Approach
South side of Tower of London seen from Tower Bridge Approach

But take a look at this post on my blog from seven years ago. There you will definitely see this great city through the eyes of one who can afford the luxury of a certain “distance” from the mundanities and challenges and stresses of city life, which may nevertheless give the space needed for fresh insights…

The Rubens Palace Tea Lounge and Bar, Buckingham Palace Road
The Rubens Palace Tea Lounge and Bar, Buckingham Palace Road

SC Skillman

Psychological, paranormal mystery fiction

Author of Mystical Circles, A Passionate Spirit and Perilous Path

The Foundling Museum, London: Poignant History of Those Working to Overcome Eighteenth Century Social Injustice

Few things in this world can be more heartbreaking than a lost, abandoned or mortally-endangered child, in a world where there is precious little compassion or social justice.

Gin Lane by William Hogarth
Gin Lane by William Hogarth

Some of our most well-known archetypal stories play into this  fear: Babes in the Wood is one, and Little Red Riding Hood or Hansel and Gretel or The Little Match Girl come to mind, along with many others.

And this fear is summed up in the word ‘foundling‘ which means ‘an infant that has been abandoned by its parents and is discovered and cared for by others.’

In London at the height of the gin craze, as this famous Hogarth print shows, many babies, infants and young children were hugely vulnerable.

And it took a influential philanthropist, Thomas Coram, to set in motion the events that led to a solution – of sorts.

For even the solution, though it led to the physical care and nurture of such children, was limited by the psychological insight of the well-meaning people who operated the system. The noble intention of the philanthropists was to rescue these abandoned children and tend to their physical and moral well being in a safe environment and to eventually enable them to become “useful members of society“. Nowadays we might, instead, aim to help them “fulfill their true potential.” But such a concept was alien to the minds of many people in those times.

It took the wealthy and powerful  to exert enough pressure to make the even wealthier and more powerful – i.e. the King – to agree that action should be taken. Thomas Coram asked twenty-one ladies of Quality and Distinction (see the exhibition at the Foundling Museum) to sign a petition to get something done.

The Foundling Hospital was established in 1739 and the first babies were admitted in 1741; it was originally sited where the museum now stands, and later moved out to a country location. And in 1954 the last residential pupil was placed in foster care. But on that original London site now stands the Foundling Museum, incorporating some of the features of the original Hospital.  A fascinating exhibition may be found there, detailing the story of the Foundling Hospital. And on the top floor is the Handel Museum, a tribute to the contribution of the great composer George Frederic Handel who was a great patron of the work of the hospital and who ultimately donated one of the original scores of The Messiah to the museum.

When I visited the Museum recently I found a very moving display of the tokens destitute mothers left with their babies when they gave them to the Foundling Hospital, in the hope of claiming their children again some time in the future: scraps of fabric, buttons, coins, keys, a hairpin…….

Only a small percentage of all the children who passed through the Hospital were ever claimed, and because they were given new names when they entered the Hospital, and their only chance of discovering their true identity was by being claimed by their mothers, many were robbed of what some might consider a birthright – the right to know who you are.

Nowadays I hope we may be moving towards a situation in the not too distant future where not a single child in that situation need be institutionalized – although it’s still far from being achieved.  Instead they may be found new homes with loving families. And that of course is the vision which inspires the work undertaken by Lumos, the charity set up by JK Rowling.

This Museum is a treasury of the memories of ordinary people – not the rich and powerful and renowned, but the many souls who pass by the attention of the Historians, each one of whom, even when lost to time, represents a story of immense value.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Royal Naval College Hospital, Greenwich – Place of Refuge for Sick and Disabled Ex-Sailors between the Seventeenth and Nineteenth Centuries

As you disembark from the Thames clipper at Greenwich you will enter a grand building in which is housed the excellent Visitor Centre for the Royal Naval College – built above the foundations of King Henry VIII’s favourite palace, Greenwich Palace.

The Royal Naval College, Greenwich
The Royal Naval College, Greenwich

Magnificent and imposing as the college buildings are, they were used as a hospital to house ex-sailors from the 17th to the 19th centuries. The sailors were all invalided out from the navy, some sick, others disabled, and their ages ranged from twelve years old upwards.

When you go on the tour of the Royal Naval College buildings and listen to stories of those sailors’ lives, you realise that the system under which they lived was highly regimented and that by our own standards they lived very restricted and controlled lives, under the iron heel of authoritarians.

The Royal Naval College, Greenwich - looking towards the Queen's House, and the Royal Observatory on the hill
The Royal Naval College, Greenwich – looking towards the Queen’s House, and the Royal Observatory on the hill

Their daily routine was full of seemingly (to our ears) harsh compulsory elements, and they were given what we might consider now to be rather mean ale rations and slept in narrow confined spaces, which of course may well have been far better than the accommodation they had formerly had on board ship.

Regardless of their various disabilities or physical constraints, they were all required on a regular basis to climb the steps which led up to the grand Chapel, to attend services thee.Once again the tentacles of rigid authoritarian control reaching into and distorting the Christian faith… And yet, we always have to consider the times and the culture in which people lived and made these decisions.

The tour is to be highly recommended, and I do urge you to include Greenwich on your list of places to be visited, when you spend a holiday in London. You will need a full day to do justice to all that Greenwich has to offer. The Queen’s House too is now open and full of fascinating historical exhibitions. And from the upper floor you may obtain the most beautiful view towards the brave new world of the revitalised London docklands….

View north across the River Thames from the Queen's House, Greenwich
View north across the river Thames from the Queen’s House, Greenwich

 

 

 

Ian Hislop’s Search for Dissent: ‘I Object’ Exhibition at the British Museum – Brilliant and Cheeky Tribute to the Spirit of Independent Thought

Free will means that even in the most totalitarian regime, individuals keep within their hearts and minds their secret thoughts and views: but with ingenuity they will find a way of expressing it.

"I Object": Ian Hislop's Search for Dissent - exhibition at the British Museum 2018/2019
“I Object”: Ian Hislop’s Search for Dissent – exhibition at the British Museum 2018/2019

When Private Eye editor and TV personality Ian Hislop stepped out of his Private Eye offices – as shown on video at the entrance to this brilliant exhibition  – he went round the corner to see if he could find signs of dissent within the hallowed portals of the museum.

As he says at the beginning of the exhibition, he had set out to answer these questions: “Have people always shown signs of dissent? Are there artefacts in the British Museum relating to people forming views against the government?” Fortunately, the answer was YES.ian hislop in his office at private eye

As you wander through the exhibition examining the artefacts, one thing becomes clear: the fiercer and more authoritarian the government under which the artists or creators lived, the more subtle and more clever the signs of dissent. And of course sometimes it can be done unconsciously, or can be just what the paranoid authorities choose to see as dissent.

Throughout the ages, through ceramic vases, badges, banknotes, coins, rugs, engravings, paintings, individuals have expressed their dissent against the established order and the powers that be.

A winking owl was taken by Chairman Mao to be a statement that his health was failing – and won the artist arrest and imprisonment. An ancient Egyptian craftsman fed up with constantly producing artefacts for the Pharaoh which were going to go in the tombs carved his own face in place of the Pharaoh’s; another added his own name where only the name of someone high and mighty should be.

In Afghanistan, a traditional rug had helicopters woven into it instead of flowers, to protest against Soviet invasion.

Soviet invaders were show with devil’s horn on another rug; and those being invaded were shown in the same position as an avenging god.

Later we saw that people have also dissented against the British Museum itself. The famous artist Banksy had done a cave painting of a man pushing a shopping trolley. It was placed in the British Museum with a very authentic looking cheeky label – and stayed there for three days before it was noticed.

Cleverly defaced banknotes and engraved coins were intended to stay in circulation with their dissenting message for as long as possible.

The ring worn by a Royalist during the rule of Cromwell opened up to reveal a portrait of King Charles I who had been beheaded.

A copy of the Bible opened up to the Ten Commandments revealed that the printer had printed “Thou shalt commit adultery.” Ironical typo…… or expression of dissent?

The exhibition was wonderfully diverse and didn’t just represent one ideological stance on the part of its curator Ian Hislop. There was no biassed view, for instance, of leftist dissenter against totalitarian regime. All views were represented, even those of a Russian who objected to Gorbachev’s attempts at control of alcohol; and someone who opposed Barak Obama. And there was before us an object which consisted of elaborate Catholic items, heavy with Catholic symbolism, turned into a supposedly inoffensive salt cellar to use in Reformation England.

George IV apparently wasted a huge amount of public money trying to suppress insulting images of himself.

And an English cartoon of William Pitt’s and George’s III’s decapitated heads followed shortly after news from France of Louis IV’s beheading.

And how about the right wing Brexiteers wearing yellow jackets? In Hong Kong those dissenting from China’s plans for political change all carried yellow umbrellas as a sign of their protest.

In one part of the exhibition Ian Hislop had written, “I was disappointed to discover that Spitting Images was not new.”

And of course – in former times the Turks had got there first with their own puppets lampooning those in authority over them.

I felt that the exhibition was a bit like “Have I got news for you?”applied to ancient artefacts – and I loved it.

 

The Museum of London, Docklands: a Beguiling Talk About the Social History of the English Pub

The English pub is such a well-loved institution.

Sailortown gallery, Museum of London Docklands
Sailortown gallery, Museum of London Docklands

I know when I lived in Australia for four years, this wonderful institution was much prized for its almost legendary status amongst the Australians, even if they did think we British are a bit weird to go around drinking warm beer all the time.

And at the Museum of London, Docklands, I had the chance to listen to a talk on the social history of this, the most iconic “hostelry”.museum of london docklands

Crowded into The Three Mariners, a replica of a small historical pub within the Museum’s Sailortown recreation, we listened to a most engaging talk on the subject. I learned that the social history of drinking in Britain began when the Romans introduced the taverna to the natives of these isles, and thus began the habit of drinking wine.

Then, later on, after the Romans had given up on us and left, the Vikings invaded – and introduced beer. then we British became used to the alehouses. Ale was a natural choice for England, and later inns began to appear.

During Tudor times, Henry VIII introduced licensing laws.. He wanted the “public house” regulated and ordered.

Then on into the 1600s and 1700s – and gin was the thing. It was very cheap and easy to make; and we know of course from  vivid engravings and from our social history, the effect that the craze for gin had on our society.

And onto William Gladstone – when he was Prime Minister he decided it would be morally superior for us to revert to wine drinking. Prior to his time wine had only been available in kegs. Now he introduced the bottle of wine, and promoted the idea that there was some kind of social refinement or even moral virtue about drinking wine as opposed to beer.

And now of course we have inherited these social  presumptions about our drinking habits. Who, our guide asked, would dare request a strawberry daiquiri when he’s sitting amongst his mates in the pub and they’ve all ordered beer? Social meltdown, at the very least!

It all brought me back to the first time I tasted alcohol. My first love was Asti Spumante; and Blue Nun was the order of the day too, along with Mateus Rose. And when I was at university, I remember such combinations as Guinness and Grapefruit, Dry Martini and Lemonade, and American Dry and Whisky – along with the much-favoured Snowball (Advocaat and Lemonade). And I have long loved a gin and tonic…

But how amusing it is to think how easily we attribute a social value to anything we might do… and no wonder the drinking of alcohol has not escaped this natural tendency of human nature.

But it was great fun to listen to our enthusiastic and lively speaker setting all our ideas about alcohol firmly in the context of English social history.